General Environment Backrounders

El Marco jurídico para la privatización del agua en El Salvador

Raul Moreno, 2005, Brot Foundation

The privatization of water in El Salvador would raise tariffs, have drastic effects on the quality of water, prevent the conservation of the resource, and would make it only available to those that have the money to pay. This study provides background information on the water situation in El Salvador, gives an analysis of the water reform, and describes reactions to the reform. The privatization of water must be avoided in order to make sure that all human beings have access to this basic right.

Dirty Metals: Mining, Communities and the Environment

Earthworks and Oxfam America

Mining has harmful effects on communities and their surrounding environment. Open-pit mines cause environmental destruction by deforestation and leaching harmful chemicals into water sources. The mining industries usually come to an area with the promise of creating jobs and boosting the economy; however, many people end up losing their livelihoods to these industries, as well as developing health issues from the exposure to hazardous chemicals. The mining industry violates human rights by negatively influencing the health, society and well-being of communities.

The Economics of Climate Change in Central America: Summary 2009

UKaid 2009

The evidence is clear that greenhouse gases from anthropogenic activities are causing dramatic changes in the global climate. Central America is very vulnerable to these changes because of its socio-economic situation and its location between two continents and oceans. In addition, the region also has rich biodiversity and natural resources, which are already suffering due to the climatic changes. This article aims to quantify the economic effects of climate change by taking into consideration extreme events, water resources, changes in the agricultural sector and biodiversity.

UNDP El Salvador Annual Report 2010

The UNDP started working in El Salvador in 1975, and has projects in the areas of democratic governance, poverty and social investment, risk management, climate change and the environment, gender and violence prevention. This is a report describing the status of various projects undertaken by the UNDP, ranging from measuring indicators towards poverty reduction to promotion the reduction of Chlorofluorocarbons and other pollutants. 

El Salvador: Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

World Bank, 2009

A summary of the current information related to climate change and agriculture in El Salvador. The Country Note describes the role of El Salvador in mitigation and adaptation to climate change. It specifically focuses on the impacts that climate change has had on the agricultural sector of El Salvador and projections of the changes that may be experienced in the next few years.

Diagnostico de recursos de la Zona Norte, 2007

SNC- Lavalin International

This paper is a diagnostic of the resources of the northern region of El Salvador, including the compilation of information about the natural, social, institutional and economic resources of the region. This includes an in-depth GIS analysis of the region and provides information on the climate, hydrology, human capital, education, nutrition, and human development of the region.

Global Climate Change Risk Index 2013


According to the Climate Risk Index, less developed countries will be the most affected by extreme weather events. The countries most affected by impacts of weather-related loss events such as storms, floods, and heat waves in 2011 include Thailand, Cambodia, Pakistan, El Salvador and the Philippines. This report analyzes the extent to which countries have been affected by climatic events and the consequences that go along with these changes.

Climate Change Risk, Perceptions and Development in El Salvador

E. Lisa F. Schipper, October 2006

This paper describes the perceptions of the people of Bajo Lempa of the effects of climate change and strategies that have been taken to adapt to these changes. It explains the vulnerability of El Salvador to climatic changes and how development can have either a positive and negative impact on its vulnerability.